Levofloxacin: Therapeutic Effects, Side Effects, and MOA

Levofloxacin in medication

Levofloxacin is the class of antibiotic that belongs to quinolone groups. These medicines use in the treatment of various bacterial infections. As per research, it has been found that the class of fluoroquinolone is highly effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

This drug was firstly marketed in Japan. Levofloxacin is the 3rd generation of quinolones that was developed by Daiichi Seiyaku.

Fluoroquinolones are often used for Urinary Tract Infection. In community-associated  infections, these are recommended only when a multidrug resistance microorganism is present or after other drugs have not therapeutic value.

Levofloxacin prevents the repairing of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase that enzymes are essential for bacterial DNA multiplication.

Levofloxacin is only effective for bacterial infection. This class of drugs should be prescribed only for infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics.

Levofloxacin can be a reason for serious side effects, which include tendon problems, nerve damage, serious mood, and behavior changes.

People who are allergic to levofloxacin or other fluoroquinolones, they should not use this antibiotic.

Indications of Levofloxacin

Pneumonia – Chest X-Ray

Pneumonia. It has broad-spectrum activity against various kinds of bacteria. Especially, it is very much effective against the CAP that is known as Community-acquired-pneumonia.

Skin Infection. Levofloxacin is widely prescribed for the treatment of mild to moderately uncomplicated skin structures such as  Impetigo, pyoderma, wound infection. These infection is generally caused by Streptococcus bacteria that are gram-positive pathogens.

Urinary Tract Infections. Escherichia Coli causes UTI.  This is the infection that takes place in the part of the urinary tract system. Women are more susceptible to UTI. The main symptoms of UTI are the Cloudy dark, bloody pee, and burning sensation while you pee.

Plague. Plague is a disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis. Humans and other mammals are the main targets of this disease. This is spread through a rodent flea. A patient develop fever, chills, and headache suddenly.

Chronic Prostate Infection. This generally happens when the prostate area is inflamed. The condition develops an uncomfortable situation around the pelvic area. E.coli is the main cause of Chronic Prostate Infection.

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Dosage of Levofloxacin

Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Dosage for Adult: 500 mg orally in tablet form/intravenous once daily for 7-14 days.

750 mg orally in tablet form/intravenously (IV) once daily for 5 days.

Skin Structure Infections

Uncomplicated Skin Infection: 500 mg oral tablet /intravenously (IV) once daily for 7-10 days.

Complicated skin Infection: 750 mg orally/intravenously (IV) once daily for 7-14 days.

Chronic Prostate Infection

500mg orally tablet/IV daily for 28 days.

Urinary Tract Infection

250 mg oral tablet/intravenously (IV) once daily for 10 days.

750 mg oral tablet/intravenously once daily for 5 days.


In Adult 500 mg orally/intravenously (IV) once daily for 10-14 days.

In Children 6 months 8 mg/kg orally/intravenously (IV) every 12 hours for 10-14 days.

Side Effects of Levofloxacin

Nausea, Diahrrea, headache, etc, are the common side effects of taking Levofloxacin. If you are having the worst of these symptoms then you should consult the physician.

You should tell the doctor about your previous health conditions such as liver problems and kidney problems.

You should call an ambulance if you are feeling chest pain, dizziness, headache, irregular heartbeat after taking the medication.

Levofloxacin can cause the sever intestine disease clostridium Diahreea. You may consult your doctor when you are suffering from frequent diarrhea.

Apart from this, you may have side effects such as constipation, insomnia, and many more.

Using this medication for a long time or repeated periods may result in oral dryness or a new yeast infection.

Sometimes, severe diarrhea occurs while taking this medication or after the stoping. it may happen even after 2 months of stopping the medicines. You don’t need to take medicines for the treatment of diarrhea. Without knowing the fact about your diarrhea,  the condition will become the worst. however, you should visit your physician and tell him about your condition.

Levofloxacin can cause severe liver problems. You must check with your doctor if you are having nausea and vomiting. Apart from this, if your urine is getting darker and light-colored stool.

Levofloxacin is one of the major causes of reducing blood cells. This condition decreases the strength of the immune system. You must avoid meeting with sick people while having these medicines. If you feel weak, you must take care of a proper diet.

A low potassium level can cause irregular heartbeat, nausea , loss of consciousness, and fainting spells during the treatment with levofloxacin.

Many people who are on this medication, they would become more sensitive to sunlight. A short period of exposure to sunlight may cause severe sunburn.

A medical report hampers if you give blood samples while taking this medication. The result of some tests can not be proper because of using this drug.

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This drug can treat various diseases but the risk of taking antibiotics levofloxacin must be beneficial for health. You should discuss it with your doctor on a few points.

Allergic Reaction

If you ever faced any allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. You should explain any of the allergic reactions that you had in the past. It may be because of food, dyes, preservatives, and many more.


This medication is not allowed prescribed in children with specific problems. This can be toxic for the children. However, in children, it can be used with care.

Geriatric generally faces problems in their body. It is more challenging to prescribe this medication in old age people. Due to the weakness of their immune system and organs, they can face severe side effects.

A Levofloxacin may increase the inflammation who is suffering from tendonitis. Patients who are above 60 and suffering from kidney disease, must consult a physician before starting this antibiotic.

Breast Feeding and Pregnancy 

There is no study about this medication that marks this safe during lactation and pregnancy. This should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding period or Mom can use this medication in the guidance of the doctor. Levofloxacin may mix with breast milk. this can cause a problem for the baby.


Diabetes is the disorder of high sugar levels in the blood. Insulin regulates the blood sugar, but due to inhibition of insulin production may cause diabetes. You should inform your doctor before starting the levofloxacin.

Liver Disease

A past history of hepatitis can cause major problems. Even if you are suffering from any of liver disease you should check with your doctor before starting the medicines.

Sun Exposure

It has been suggested to stay away from direct sunlight wear protective clothes before going out. You must apply an SPF 50+ sunscreen to protect yourself from the rashes and sunburn.

Levofloxacin Drug Interaction

Here, we are going to provide you the levofloxacin interactions. A drug interaction can change the action or side effects. The interaction can caused by using supplements, drugs, or by taking beverages and food.

Interaction with Drug

  • Aspirin
  • Omega 3 fatty acid
  • Ibuferne
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Naproxen
  • Cetirizine
  • WarfarinMetronidazole
  • Albuterol
  • Benadryl

Interaction with Food/Beverages

  • Alcohol
  • Smoking

Interaction with Disease

  • Tendonitis
  • Crystalluria
  • Diabetes
  • Renal Dysfunction
  • Hemodialysis
  • CNS disorder

Mechanism of Action


Levofloxacin is the broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It inhibits the synthesis of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerase is essential for DNA replication. The inhibition topoisomerase stops the cell division. DNA is the requirement of supercoiling that develops the new cells. Inhibition of both mechanisms tends to death of bacteria.


Levofloxacin is the 3rd generation of quinolone, which is used for the treatment of various infections. It is a broad-spectrum class of antibiotics, which is effective against both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. But before taking the medication, you should consult to doctor for proper information.

General FAQs

Is levofloxacin a strong antibiotic?

This is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat the disease like UTI, plague, respiratory infection, etc. The use of medication can be a reason for various side effects.

How quickly the levofloxacin work?

The half-life of levofloxacin is 6-8 hours.  The maximum time is 2 hrs to reach a pick level of the drug but it takes at least 3 days to resolve the infection.

What should I avoid while taking the levofloxacin medication?

You should avoid drinking and smoking in the period of treatment. Even you swill have to stop few medications, but before deciding anything you should consult to the physician. 

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